Sabah has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species.
The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park.
Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture and language.
The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister.
Early in 1292, Kublai Khan is said to have sending an expedition to northern Borneo, In addition with the discovery of Chinese ceramics from a shipwreck in Tanjung Simpang Mengayau which estimated to be from 960–1127 A. of Song dynasty and Vietnamese Đông Sơn drum in Bukit Timbang Dayang on Banggi Island that had existed between 2,000–2,500 years ago.Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam in the west and the Philippines to the north and east.Kota Kinabalu is the capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah state government.Malay is the official language of the state; Sabah is known for its traditional musical instrument, the sompoton.The Sabah International Folklore Festival is the main folklore event in Malaysia, other festivals including the Borneo Bird Festival, Borneo Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival, Kota Kinabalu Food Fest, Kota Kinabalu Jazz Festival, Sabah Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah Fest and Sabah Sunset Music Festival.