The evil angel modifies and corrupts the original message given to Ozim by Osius, and renames Ozim Muhammad.
From this followed the erroneous teachings of Islam, according to the Tultusceptrum.
Many sources mentioned exaggerated and sometimes wrong stereotypes.
Thomas Aquinas was highly critical of Muhammad's character and ethics, claiming that his teachings were largely in conformity to his immoral lifestyle.
He wrote in Summa Contra Gentiles: "“[Muhammad] seduced the people by promises of carnal pleasure to which the concupiscence of the flesh goads us.
In the Middle Ages, it was common for Jewish writers to describe Muhammad as ha-meshuggah ("The Madman"), a term of contempt frequently used in the Bible for those who believe themselves to be prophets.
The earliest (documented) Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources, written shortly after Muhammad's death in 632.