Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.
Paris hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics.
The Paris Region had a GDP of €649.6 billion (US 3.4 billion) in 2014, accounting for 30.4 percent of the GDP of France.
Paris's cultural centre had begun to move to the Right Bank, the swampland there having been transformed into farmland.
In 1137, a new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville).
During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris the most beautiful city in Europe.
He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII.