Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine.
In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena.
I am grateful to Chang Sun and Tomasz Swiecki for their research assistance and Princeton University for the research support.
I would also like to thank the Editor, two anonymous referees, Pablo Fajgelbaum, Gene Grossman, David Nagy, Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, Jacques-François Thisse, and conference and seminar participants for helpful comments and suggestions.
Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers.
He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors.
The next year, under the name "Poitevin", he enrolled at the Leiden University to study mathematics with Jacobus Golius, who confronted him with Pappus's hexagon theorem, and astronomy with Martin Hortensius.
Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day.Martin's Day), while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" (probably a Kachelofen or masonry heater) to escape the cold.While within, he had three dreams and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy.Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system (see below) was named after him.