Already the words used - special district and democracy - exemplify the different connotations they have for economists, lawyers and political scientists.Without mastering the different vocabularies nobody can solve the organizational problem.Only very slowly public law became a science proper (L650/261).But the theory of government remained an overarching theoretical concept in continental Europe right to the end of the nineteenth century (e.g. 002 To-day, at least in Europe, such a unity is at best a historical recollection.Obviously, this selective dealing with scientific data by political office-holders can never be and should never be quite eliminated.But the complementarity of the different sciences and their overlapping has become so evident that something along the lines of the old integrated theory of government is desirable.
Systems theory dispenses to a large degree with causal relationships, whereas the usual attempts at integration try to relate in a consistent way different scientific findings to a few grand basic hypotheses.
005 All scientific disciplines that analyse government have one thing in common.
They all claim that their findings are relevant to policy making.
The former and still now predominant approach in the humanities emphasized relations of cause and effect.
Systems theories -preceded by Gestalt psychology, Pepper's contextualism and Henderson's theory of balance- are different. The first influential theoretician was von Bertalanffy in the thirties.